Eye Conditions R – U

Retinal Detachment

Separation of the retina from the underlying supportive tissues. Retinal detachment may result from injury, disease, or other causes. A person with retinal detachment usually does not experience pain, but may see floaters or bright flashes of light, may have blurred vision, or may see a shadow or curtain over part of the field of vision. Prompt medical attention is required to prevent permanent vision loss. There are several methods of treatment for retinal detachment, including laser surgery.

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Degeneration of the retina, resulting in decreased night vision, a gradual loss of peripheral vision, and in some cases, loss of central vision. Degeneration progresses over time and can lead to blindness. It is a rare, inherited disease for which there is as yet no treatment or cure. Some ophthalmologists believe that treatment with high doses of Vitamin A can slow the progression of retinitis pigmentosa, and that taking Vitamin E makes it worse. Early diagnosis enables a person with the disease to plan and prepare for its progression. Depending on the degree of vision loss, electronic magnifiers, night-vision scopes, and other such special devices for impaired vision can provide some benefit.


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Malignant tumour (cancer) of the retina, generally affecting children under the age of 6. Usually hereditary, retinoblastoma may affect one or both eyes. Retinoblastoma has a cure rate of over 90 percent if treated early. Without prompt treatment, the cancer can spread to the eye socket, the brain, and elsewhere, and can cause death. Depending on the size and location of the tumour, treatment options include laser surgery, cryotherapy (a freezing treatment), radiation, and chemotherapy. In some cases, the affected eye may need to be removed.

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)

Condition associated with premature birth, where the growth of normal blood vessels in the retina stops, and abnormal blood vessels develop. As a result, the infant has an increased risk of detachment of the retina Retinopathy of prematurity can lead to reduced vision or blindness. Laser therapy can help if diagnosis and treatment occur early. Children who experience minor effects may benefit from the use of devices for low vision as they get older.


A gap or blind spot in the field of vision that may result from damage to the retina. How much a scotoma impairs sight depends mainly on whether it affects central or peripheral vision. Common causes of scotoma include macular degenerationglaucoma, and inflammation of the optic nerve. People may benefit from the use of magnifiers, bright lighting, and large-print reading materials.

Stargardt’s Disease

Inherited disease that causes gradual degeneration of the macula, the area in the middle of the retina that makes possible the central vision needed for reading, driving, recognizing colours, and other activities of daily life. Effects start at an early age, varying from minor to total loss of detail vision. Over a period of years, people with the disease typically lose sharpness of vision, experience decreased colour vision, and may have blind spots. However, peripheral and night vision usually remains unaffected, and complete loss of sight is rare. There is no cure or treatment, but such devices as magnifying screens and binocular lenses can help people cope.

Strabismus (SQUINT)

The eyes are not both directed toward the same point simultaneously when the eye muscles are not working together properly. It is most commonly an inherited condition, but may also be caused by disease or injury., strabismus Can usually be corrected if diagnosed early. The condition may be treated with corrective eyeglasses, eye-muscle exercises, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. Young children with this condition may need to wear an eye patch over their stronger eye to force their weaker eye to function correctly. Children whose strabismus is not corrected may develop amblyopia.

Sturge-Weber Syndrome

A disorder present at birth, characterised by a facial birthmark and any of various neurological, visual, and developmental symptoms. People with Sturge-Weber syndrome may, for example, experience seizures, glaucoma, partial paralysis, and learning disabilities. There is no cure for Sturge-Weber syndrome, but many of the symptoms can be treated. Medications may be prescribed to control seizures, and surgery or eye drops may be used to treat glaucoma.


A contagious eye infection caused by bacteria that affects the eyelid and cornea. It can lead to scarring and blindness if not treated. The infection is spread by contact with discharge from the eyes or nose of infected persons and also transmitted by certain flies. It affects millions of people around the world. Antibiotics are generally effective especially if used early in the infection. In certain cases, eyelid surgery may be needed.

Usher Syndrome

Inherited condition that causes partial or total hearing loss accompanied by gradual vision loss resulting from retinitis pigmentosa. Sometimes also having problems with balance. There is no cure for the condition. However, early diagnosis makes it possible to help people with Usher Syndrome by providing hearing aids, training in sign language and lip reading, devices for impaired vision.


Inflammation inside the eye, affecting the structures that provide most of the blood supply to the retina, and may affect one or both eyes. The condition may be associated with an underlying disease or have other causes, but in many cases it affects people who are otherwise healthy. People typically experience redness of the eye, blurred vision, and light sensitivity. They may also feel pain and see floaters. If not properly treated, uveitis can lead to scarring and vision loss. Treatment depends on which eye structures are affected and whether there is an underlying disease. Eye drops and other medications are commonly prescribed to reduce inflammation.

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